Reproductive System

Reproductive System

Female Reproductive Disorders

Pyometra is a very common reproductive problem in female dogs. Canine pyometra is an infectious and inflammatory disorder of the uterus that occurs most commonly in middle aged to elderly unsterilised female dogs during or immediately after the luteal phase of the estrous cycle.
pyometra bitch

The corpus luteum forms following ovulation from the ovarian follicle. The CL secretes progesterone and persists for approximately six weeks in the bitch which is why female canids get false pregnancy and also a high incidence of pyometra. The glandular activity of the uterine mucosa is very active for approximately six weeks whether the bitch is pregnant or not. 

dog canine ovary corpus luteum
An ovary of the bitch in the luteal phase demonstrating progesterone secreting corpus luteum

Acute metritis in the bitch often occurs a week after whelping, mating or even a normal oestrous cycle (heat). The dog is acutely unwell and has a very high temperature. There is a copious purulent discharge from the vulva that is extending from the uterus. It looks a lot like a pyometra (and needs to be differentiated from pyometra).

metritis infection uterus canine
The lining of the uterus is hyperaemic and inflamed from inflammation and infection (metritis).

Endometriosis is a common cause of infertility and miscarriage, that also leads to infection and eventually pyometra. If a bitch has not fallen pregnant despite good mating practices with a fertile male, endometriosis can be a cause of the infertility. There are new treatments in people that we are looking at for dogs however an accurate diagnosis of endometriosis needs to be made first. A biopsy of the uterus needs to be performed.

dog uterus endometriosis biopsy Treendale Pet Medical
Severe end stage endometriosis that caused pyometra in a bitch.
The uterus is extremely thickened

dog uterine biopsy endometriosis infertility canine Bunbury Treendale Pet Medical
Endometriosis bitch

The lining of the uterus is very thickened and there is glandular hyperplasia and excessive secretion of mucoid material that has become infected.


Male Reproductive Disorders

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